The Man’s influence on ecosystems is all-pervasive and complex and manifested through dozens of ways, altering structures and ecosystem functioning through its influence on the rates of synthesis of biological structures, chemical compositions, energy and material fluxes, population processes, species interactions and, thereby biodiversity.
The most of these ecosystem characteristics relies on general theories; theories make explicit quantitative predictions based on first principles; however current theories make possible to explain most of ecosystem changes due to natural drivers but almost always there is an unpredictable residual variation due to Man’s action. Such a residual variation can be measured as “departures from predictions”; the magnitude and direction of these deviations may provide clues to their causes.

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